Healthy Dietary Guidelines For Type 2 Diabetes
“Avoid skipping meals and eat smaller portions every two-three hours”
Being one of the most chronic metabolic conditions, diabetes mellitus involves major alterations In glucose metabolism along with disturbances in protein and fat metabolism. Hyperglycaemia, high blood glucose. results from defects in insulin secretion action. Diabetes is further classified in to different types and one such important type Is type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This is the most common form of diabetes and in more than 90 per cent of diabetics, this is the cause.
Our body maintains blood glucose levels within a narrow range of 70 – l20 mg/dl. A blood glucose level of more than 200 mg/dl, a fasting blood glucose of more than 126 mg/dl on more than one occasion and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test having blood glucose more than 200 mg/dl post two hours after a standard carbohydrate meal, suggests the presence of diabetes.
The Role Of Obesity
One of the major causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a sedentary lifestyle and improper dietary habits. With limited time to look after ourselves and the increasing need to earn as much money possible is one significant reason. Obesity, because of our lifestyle choices, triggers imbalance in blood glucose levels and reduces insulin sensitivity.
Insulin supplies blood glucose and other nutrients into the cells for energy. But a growing insulin resistance fails to provide any glucose to the cells in spite of a well maintained spike in blood glucose. This leads to starvation of the cells and tissues. Gradually the beta cells of our pancreas that produce insulin also tire and become dysfunctional manifesting into stubborn hyperglycemia. Obesity, like diabetes, involves insulin resistance only without hyperglycemia. An excess fat deposit in the body and its distribution especially around the abdomen causes higher insulin resistance.
Signs Symptoms And Complications
The onset of diabetes is marked by hyperglycemia, glucosuria (presence of glucose in the urine), polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased appetite). If not treated, it can lead to severe complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, macrovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemia, gangrene, diabetic nephropathy with low (micro) to high (macro) amounts of albumin in the urine, diabetic retinopathy and an increased risk of glaucoma and cataract.
Healthy Dietary Guidelines
- A well balanced meal should be opted for – one providing you with all the essential nutrients in adequate proportions
- Avoid skipping meals and eat smaller portions every two-three hours as this will not just help boost your metabolic rate but will also maintain blood sugar levels
- Avoid sugar dense products like sweets, pastries, chocolates, ice creams etc. along with oily and fried snacks
- Consumption of complex carbohydrates like jowar, bajra and ragi that provide high amounts of libre help balance blood glucose levels
- Including sources of protein like egg, milk and milk products, cottage cheese, dais and pulses, meat and meat products prove to be beneficial.
- L – carnitine is an amino acid that has been said to lower blood glucose levels and is generally given as a supplement in severe cases
- Eat a lot of greens along with a lot of citrus fruits and limit the consumption of sugar dense fruits like banana, chickoo, custard apple, grapes and mangoes to only once a week
- Consuming an apple everyday will help in detoxification and elimination of harmful substances, it has been reported to decrease insulin requirement by almost 35 percent
- Grapefruit assists in weight loss, hence including a small serving of it daily would not just help you lose weight but also help you lower sugar levels
- Jambul seeds and fenugreek seeds have anti-diabetic properties that have an effect on the pancreas and are a rich source of fibre respectively.
- Drying and powdering its seeds and consuming it two-three times a day proves advantageous
- Indian spices including cinnamon add medicinal value to your diet and help decrease serum sugar levels
Avoid alcohol, smoking, tobacco chewing etc. to keep complications at bay. Also, keep it in mind, that 30 minutes of mild to moderate exercises three-five times a week helps enhance the body’s ability to process glucose. Therefore, walking, jogging, swimming, aerobic activities and yoga can help you stay fit.