A major part of General Awareness section is based on Indian states. Therefore it is important that you know the information about the states well. Know your State – Bihar will help you learn major facts, global importance, and culture of every state. This particular article will help you learn everything about Bihar in one glance.
Read the complete article to find out the history, economy, geographical significance, flora & fauna, important sites, tourist attractions, etc. about Bihar. You can also download this article as a PDF to keep it handy.
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Location of Map of India – Bihar
Basic Facts about Bihar
• Formation: 22 March 1912 (Bihar Diwas)
• Statehood: 26 January 1950
• Capital: Patna
• Number of District : 38
• Governor: Fagu Chauhan
• Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar (JD(U))
• High court: Patna High Court
• Chief Justice: Amreshwar Pratap Sahi
• Members of the Legislative Assembly: 243
• Lok Sabha Seats: 39
• Rajya Sabha Seats: 16
Bihar – Boundaries
- The state is bordered by Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south.
Bihar State Symbols
• State Animal: Gaur
• State Bird: House Sparrow
• State Flower: Marigold
• State Tree: Peepal
History of Bihar
- Regions of Bihar- such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga, are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.
- In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture.
- From Magadha arose India’s first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism.
- On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.
Geography of Bihar
- It is the twelfth-largest Indian state. The third-largest state by population.
- Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain.
- It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Kosi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains.
- The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east.
- The Legislative Assembly election was held over five-phases in Bihar in 2015.
- The RJD emerged as a single largest party with 81 seats, followed by JD (U) with 70 seats and BJP with 53 seats.
- Nitish Kumar is the current CM of Bihar.
- Legislative Assembly elections will be held in Bihar in October 2020 to elect 243 members of the Bihar Legislative Assembly.
Major Dams in Bihar, India
Indrapuri Barrage: Indrapuri Barrage (also known as the Sone Barrage) is across the Son River in Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Important Lakes in Bihar
- Kanwar Lake: (Begusarai )
- Dhua Kund : ( Sasaram)
- Sita Kund: ( Sitamarhi)
- Muchalinda Lake: (Bodhgaya)
- Ghora Katora Lake: (Nalanda)
General Facts about Bihar
- Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.
- Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.
- Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.
- Literacy (2011): 82%
- Sex ratio (2011): 918 $/1000 S
- Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar.
- Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar.
- Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur.
- Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.
GI Tags of Bihar
- Silao khaja
- Sujini Embroidery
- Sikki Grass Work
- Madhubani Paintings
- Applique (Khatwa)
- Bhagalpur Silks
- Sikki Grass
- Shahi Litchi
- Katarni Rice
- Jardalu Mango
- Magahi Paan (Betel)
Festivals & Fairs of Bihar
- Chatth Puja: Almost all civilizations have worshipped the ‘sun god’, but it has a unique form in Bihar.
- Sama-Chakeva: It is during the winter season that the birds from the Himalayas migrate towards the plains. With the advent of these colorful birds, celebration of sama – chakeva is done. This is a festival especially celebrated in mithila.
- Bihula: Bihula is a prominent festival of eastern Bihar especially famous in Bhagalpur district.
- Vaishali Fair: It is held in Chitra Trayodashi in Vaishali on the occasion of Mahavir’s birthday. Saurath Fair: Sourath is a village near Madhubani district of Bihar. Here, a fair is held which is also known as Marriage Market that is held in the Jayestha Asasadh month.
- Malmas Fair: It is organised at Rajgir for taking bath in warm kund (Hot Springs).
- Baba Brahmeshwarnath Fair: It is organised on Shivratri and Baishakh Krishna Paksh Ekadashi in twice a year at Buxar district, Bihar.
Dances of Bihar
- Kajari Dance
Important National Park and wildlife Sanctuaries in Bihar
- Valmiki National Park
- Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Wild Life Sanctuary
- Kaimur Wild Life Sanctuary
- Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Wild Life Sanctuary
- Valmiki Wild Life Sanctuary
- Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Wild Life Sanctuary
List of Monuments of National Importance in Bihar
- Tomb of Sher Shah Suri: Rohtas
- Vishnupad Temple, Gaya: Gaya
- Tomb of Mahmud Shah: Bhagalpur
- Brahmayoni Hill: Gaya
- Beguhjam Masjid: Patna
- Hazarimal Dharamshala: West Champaran
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
- Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya: 2002
- Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda: 2016
Known as/for Bihar
– Birthplace of Buddhism and Jainism
– The capital state of Mauryan dynasty (Magadh)
– Indian state with the least literacy rate
– Bicameral legislature
– Almost 58% of the people in Bihar are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state
-The top litchi producing State in the country